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Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, prince de Bénévent
Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, prince de Bénévent, in full Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, prince de Bénévent, (born Feb. 2, 1754, Paris, France—died May 17, 1838, Paris), French statesman and diplomat noted for his capacity for political survival, who held high office during the French Revolution, under Napoleon, at the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy, and under King Louis-Philippe.
Education and clerical career
Talleyrand was the son of Charles-Daniel, comte de Talleyrand-Périgord, and Alexandrine de Damas d’Antigny. His parents came from old, aristocratic families but were not rich. Charles-Maurice was sent to be nursed in a Paris suburb, where, when he was four years old, he is said to have fallen off a chest of drawers, dislocating his foot. It is possible, however, that his clubfoot was congenital. At any rate, Talleyrand’s clubfoot was of cardinal importance in his choice of career.
As Talleyrand could not follow the family tradition by going into the army, his parents intended him for the church. From the age of eight he was a pupil at the Collège d’Harcourt in Paris, and at 15 he became an assistant to his uncle Alexandre, then coadjutor to the archbishop of Reims, in the hope that the luxurious life led by the princes of the church would awaken in him a taste for an ecclesiastical career. He liked what he saw, and in 1770 entered the seminary of Saint-Sulpice in Paris. There he certainly learned theology, but he also read, in the seminary’s large library, the works of the Philosophes, the contemporary progressive thinkers. Thus he began his political education and acquired a skepticism regarding men and affairs that was never to leave him. In addition, while still a seminarian, he took his first mistress.
Expelled for his conduct (1775), he nevertheless received minor orders in April of that year and was, six months later, nominated by the King as abbot of Saint-Denis, at Reims. In March 1778 Talleyrand received his degree in theology from the Sorbonne, and in December 1779 he was ordained. The following day his uncle Alexandre, archbishop of Reims, appointed him his vicar general.
At that time Talleyrand appeared to be a typical court cleric, spending more time with the most fashionable wits and beauties of the day than with churchmen. Yet he did not devote all his time to pleasure; he believed in his future and desired above all to become a bishop. The surest way to his goal was appointment to the well-paid post of agent general of the clergy, who represented the French church in its dealings with the French government in the interval between meetings of the Assembly of the Clergy, which were held regularly every five years. Talleyrand was appointed agent general in 1780. There were, in fact, two agents general, but his colleague’s reputation had been undermined, and Talleyrand was in practice the sole representative of the French church between 1780 and 1785. He seems to have taken his role very seriously; in any case, he showed great energy in defending the controversial privileges of the church. He fought vigorously for the right of the church to retain all its property. He also tenaciously defended ecclesiastical jurisdiction against the encroachments of royal justice, argued for the continued exemption of the clergy from ordinary taxes, and played a part in raising the standard of living of the lower clergy. His activities brought him into regular contact with various ministers of the crown. His participation in the meetings of the Assembly of the Clergy gave him an exceptional opportunity to acquire parliamentary experience. Finally, his activities won him the coveted bishopric: in November 1788 he was appointed bishop of Autun. When he took possession of his see on March 15, 1789, the Revolution was on the verge of breaking out.
During the Revolution
Talleyrand’s first task was to prepare the elections to the States General, the National Assembly in which the Estates were separately represented. The assembly had not met in France since 1614 and was now summoned for May 5, 1789. Talleyrand, elected by his clergy as their deputy, like all delegates had prepared a list of grievances. His list contained demands for reforms in the status of the clergy as well as for a constitution that would provide a representative government guaranteeing equality for all citizens, especially fiscal equality, thus abolishing those financial privileges that he had defended four years earlier. This was the first of a series of reversals that were to be characteristic.
At the solemn opening of the States General at Versailles, Talleyrand attracted immediate attention and soon acquired great influence. During the earlier deliberations, the clergy and the nobility wanted to sit in separate chambers, as they had previously; Talleyrand, however, favoured uniting the three orders into one National Assembly, and his proposal was accepted. To the astonishment of his fellow bishops who remembered the zeal with which he had once defended church rights, Talleyrand urged the repeal of the tithe and the nationalization of French church property. The land thus appropriated was to be used to pay off the state’s debts. When nationalization was voted on Nov. 2, 1789, Talleyrand emerged as one of the most revolutionary deputies, and when he celebrated mass at the Festival of the Federation on July 14, 1790, in commemoration of the taking of the Bastille the year before, he seemed the veritable “bishop of the Revolution.” The same month, Talleyrand succeeded in having the Civil Constitution of the Clergy adopted, which, without papal approval, completely reorganized the French church on a democratic basis. The first bishop to take the oath of loyalty to this constitution, he also consecrated the first bishops elected according to the new procedure. The resulting excommunication by the Pope did not distress Talleyrand, who was already planning to leave the church. It no longer offered sufficient scope for his ambition, and, since, under the law expropriating the church he had been deprived of his property, a bishopric could no longer satisfy his monetary needs. Elected administrator of the département of Paris in January 1791, he resigned as bishop of Autun.
Talleyrand’s skill as a clever negotiator was noted, and when at the close of 1791 the French government wanted to prevent England and Prussia from joining Austria in a coalition against France, the foreign minister sent Talleyrand to London to persuade England to remain neutral. Arriving in London in January 1792, Talleyrand proposed to William Pitt, the prime minister, that both countries guarantee each other’s territorial integrity. Returning to Paris in March without a definite answer from the British, Talleyrand persuaded the new foreign minister to appoint the young marquis de Chauvelin as ambassador to London and returned there as his assistant. The two men arrived in London on April 29, just after France had declared war on Austria, with whom Prussia then allied itself. Although Talleyrand secured a declaration of neutrality from the British government on May 25, the storming of the Tuileries palace by the Paris mob on June 20 made his position difficult, and he left London on July 5. The overthrow of the monarchy on August 10 and the massacre of royalist prisoners in September alienated what sympathy the London government had for France and, at the same time, made it advisable for Talleyrand to leave Paris. After drafting—as a pledge of loyalty to the Provisional Executive Council—a circular to all European governments attributing responsibility for the events of August 10 to Louis XVI, he obtained a passport to go to London in a private capacity. Arriving on September 18, he made every effort to avert war with Great Britain, but the invasion of Belgium by the French, followed by the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, made war inevitable. Talleyrand, who had been denounced in the National Convention (the assembly elected after the overthrow of the monarchy), also became undesirable in England, where the most counterrevolutionary of the French émigrés were demanding his expulsion. Expelled in January 1794, he embarked for the United States in March. He remained there for two years, engaging in profitable financial speculations that enabled him to rebuild his fortune.